Quality Care and..


All children have the help they need to learn to read at home, in school and in the community


Quality instruction and care is a continuum that starts at home with a parent, a child’s first teacher. High quality early education and childcare programs, including home visiting, center-based preschool, Early Head Start, Head Start and pre-k, can have large and sustained impacts on children, including in cognitive ability and behavior.[i] In Baltimore City, nearly two-thirds of students arrive to kindergarten from pre-K, and 15% of children enter kindergarten with no formal care or education.[ii] Children from pre-k and center-based childcare outperform informal or home-based care on kindergarten school readiness assessments.[iii] In order to learn to read, children need comprehensive literacy instruction (Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Vocabulary, Fluency and Comprehension), as well as a system of student supports.[iv] This system includes screening and progress monitoring assessments, as well as a robust intervention process where students who have fallen behind are provided targeted instruction to catch them back up and students who are performing above are provided ongoing enrichment to enhance skills. A meta-analysis of intervention research found large effects on student achievement for both systemic (e.g., reductions in special education referrals) and student outcomes (e.g., increased increase reading scores).[v]

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[i] Filene, J. H., Kaminski, J. W., Valle, L. A., & Cachat, P. (2013). Components Associated With Home Visiting Program Outcomes: A Meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 132(Supplement 2), S100-S109; Pianta et al. (2002). The Effects of Preschool Education: What We Know, How Public Policy Is or Is Not Aligned With the Evidence Base and What We Need to Know. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 10(2), 49-88; Puma, M., Bell, S., Cook, R., Heid, C., Lopez, M., Zill, N., et al. (2005). Head Start impact study: First year findings. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human

Services, Administration for Children and Families; Fram, M. S., Kim, J., & Sinha, S. (2012). Early Care and Prekindergarten Care as Influences on School Readiness. Journal of Family Issues, 33(4), 478-505.

[ii] MSDE and Ready at Five (2014), The 2013-2014 Maryland School Readiness Report.

[iii] Ibid.

[iv] National Reading Panel, 2000.

[v] Burns, M.K., Appleton, J.J., & Stehouwer, J.D. (2005). Meta-Analytic Review of Responsiveness-to-Intervention Research: Examining Field-Based and Research Implemented Models. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 23(4), 381-394.